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Oncological and Functional Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy in Kidney Transplant Recipients


Management of prostate cancer in kidney transplant recipients presents a unique surgical challenge due to the risk of direct or indirect injury to the transplanted kidney. Herein, we report the largest single center study of Robot-assisted Radical prostatectomy (RARP) in kidney transplant recipients. Between Jan 2014-2019, 14 kidney transplant recipients with prostate cancer underwent RARP. Clinical and pathological features, perioperative and postoperative complications were retrospectively evaluated. Continence was defined as by patient utilization of zero urinary pads postoperatively. The median (IQR) age at RARP was 60.2 (57.8-61.3) years, the interval between kidney transplant and RARP was 8.1 ± 7.5 years. The median (IQR) PSA was 6.9 (4-8.6); 10 of 14 patients had intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer. The median ASA score was 3, the mean (SD) operative time was 129.7 (26.3) minutes, and mean (SD) blood loss was 110 (44.6) ml. All cases were completed robotically, there was no graft loss or injury to transplanted ureter, and the mean length of stay was 1 (0.26) day.Final pathology demonstrated that 42.8% (6/14) of the patients had nonorgan confined disease (pT3a/T3b). 50% (7/14) of the patients were upgraded to higher risk Gleason disease on final surgical pathology. Post-RARP continence rate at 3 months, and 12 months were 45.5% (5/11) and 87.5% (7/8), respectively. RARP following kidney transplantation represents a safe and feasible operation which does not appear to compromise oncological or transplant outcomes.

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