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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Unraveling the Crystallization Kinetics of 2D Perovskites with Sandwich-Type Structure for High-Performance Photovoltaics.


2D perovskite solar cells with high stability and high efficiency have attracted significant attention. A systematical static and dynamic structure investigation is carried out to show the details of 2D morphology evolution. A dual additive approach is used, where the synergy between an alkali metal cation and a polar solvent leads to high-quality 2D perovskite films with sandwich-type structures and vertical phase segregation. Such novel structure can induce high-quality 2D slab growth and reduce internal and surface defects, resulting in a high device efficiency of 16.48% with enhanced continuous illumination stability and improved moisture (55-60%) and thermal (85 °C) tolerances. Transient absorption spectra reveal the carrier migration from low n to high n species with different kinetics. An [PbI6 ]4- octagon coalescence transformation mechanism coupled with metal and organic cations wrapped is proposed. By solvent vapor annealing, a recrystallization and reorientation of the 2D perovskite slabs occurs to form an ideal structure with improved device performance and stability.

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