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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Effects of local event-by-event conservation laws in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at particlization

  • Author(s): Oliinychenko, D
  • Shi, S
  • Koch, V
  • et al.

Many simulations of relativistic heavy-ion collisions involve the switching from relativistic hydrodynamics to kinetic particle transport. This switching entails the sampling of particles from the distribution of energy, momentum, and conserved currents provided by hydrodynamics. Usually, this sampling ensures the conservation of these quantities only on the average, i.e., the conserved quantities may actually fluctuate among the sampled particle configurations and only their averages over many such configurations agree with their values from hydrodynamics. Here we apply a recently invented method [D. Oliinychenko and V. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 182302 (2019)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.123.182302] to ensure conservation laws for each sampled configuration in spatially compact regions (patches) and study their effects: From the well-known (micro-)canonical suppression of means and variances to little studied (micro-)canonical correlations and higher-order fluctuations. Most of these effects are sensitive to the patch size. Many of them do not disappear even in the thermodynamic limit, when the patch size goes to infinity. The developed method is essential for particlization of stochastic hydrodynamics. It is useful for studying the chiral magnetic effect, small systems, and in general for fluctuation and correlation observables.

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