To achieve carbon reduction goals for 2040 and 2050, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) policy must be worldwide and involve multi-decade policy programs. One policy is a broadening commitment to ending fossil fuels for light-duty vehicles; this will solidify the direction and accelerate investments in zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) and decapitalization of internal combustion drivetrain production so as to enable the climate driven timetable of the transition. Another proposed policy is up to two decades of financial signals to buyers and producers, sized to keep the market tilted toward PEVs while production costs decline. Additional privileges in road, parking and electricity systems are needed to attract more conservative segments of buyers and sellers. PEV manufacturers could commit to at least three generations of PEV design, and investment and product rollout into all market segments and vehicle designs. Outreach and education campaigns lasting through those three generations of potential consumers could also be implemented, including leveraging the enthusiastic desire of the first few million buyers to educate coworkers and neighbors. Inclusion of energy transitions in the education system is also necessary. The retail sector, primarily dealers included in the policy, could also have education and incentive programs. Efforts of OEMs, governments and power companies could be coordinated to meet charging needs and wants of the expanding market. This will need to include the greening of the grid and integration of PEVs in the system optimization of renewables.
The most commonly stated function of eco-driving has been increased on-road fuel economy. Other functions, such as emissions reductions and safety, have been substituted or conflated with fuel economy. There is no consensus on what behaviors constitute eco-driving: definitions differ by functions, forms, and contexts. To aid in systematizing eco-driving classifications, the authors propose a framework grounded in behavioral theory. Because definitions vary, so too do estimates of effects. Still, the literature presents a compelling case that drivers can increase their vehicles’ fuel economy compared to established vehicle ratings. Equally clear, there is much yet to be done to ensure that drivers capture and sustain these improvements. Most eco-driving interventions have focused on driving behaviors. They have largely been limited to training and feedback, with tentative conclusions that feedback is more effective. The behavioral framework suggested here highlights the need for intervention designs specific to the function, form, and context of eco-driving behaviors.
Related Research Centers & Groups
- 3 Revolutions Future Mobility Program
- China Center for Energy and Transportation
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- National Center for Sustainable Transportation
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- Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways (STEPS)
- Urban Land Use and Transportation Center
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