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Open Access Publications from the University of California


The International Journal of Comparative Psychology is sponsored by the International Society for Comparative Psychology. It is a peer-reviewed open-access digital journal that publishes studies on the evolution and development of behavior in all animal species. It accepts research articles and reviews, letters and audiovisual submissions.

Volume 8, Issue 4, 1995

Research Article

Affiliative and Sexual Differences Between a Reproductive and a Nonresponsive

A heterosexual group of nonreproductive rhesus ( Macaca mulatto ) containing vasectomized males was compared with a matched control group containing intact males. Comparisons were made on data collected before the birth of the first infant in the control group. Three Darwinian a priori hypotheses were used to predict differences between groups. The first hypothesis correctly predicted more affiliative and sexual behavior among experimental heterosexual dyads. The results did not support the second hypothesis that predicted less affiliation between experimental males. The third hypothesis correctly predicted that heterosexual affiliation and sexual behavior would occur between more of the possible heterosexual dyads in the experimental group. Two-tailed tests showed the females in the reproductive group engaged in significantly less intrasexual affiliation. The results suggest failure to reproduce has a causal influence on the affiliative and sexual interaction patterns of rhesus macaques.

State Organization and Activity in Infant Cebid Monkeys ( Cebus and Saimiri ) in Two Rearing Conditions

Behavioral states and their organization in 5-week old squirrel monkeys and 8-week old capuchin monkeys was evaluated. Infants at these ages are not quite at the threshold, under species-normal rearing conditions, of independent locomotion. Two age-matched infants of each species were observed continuously for a 5-day period while cared for by their mothers in their natal social groups, or while cared for by humans and housed in an incubator on a stationary support. All four infants spent similar proportions of time sleeping, drowsy, nursing, and awake. Hand-rearedinfants were more frequently awake and active with their hands, cocked their heads more often, and slept in shorter bouts than their mother-reared counterparts. All infants exhibited a positive correlation during the daylight hours between the duration of time in an alert quiet state and the duration of time being moved by a carrier. In addition to providing detailed information about the temporal characteristics of state organization and activity within subjects, the findings suggest the kinds of alterations in activity which can result in these species when artificial (largely stationary) rearing regimes are experienced. Many of the alterations can be interpreted as compensatory self-stimulation. The alterations are apparently different in the species studied here from those described for other species, principally macaques, experiencing similar artificial rearing regimes.