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Open Access Publications from the University of California


The International Journal of Comparative Psychology is sponsored by the International Society for Comparative Psychology. It is a peer-reviewed open-access digital journal that publishes studies on the evolution and development of behavior in all animal species. It accepts research articles and reviews, letters and audiovisual submissions.

Volume 9, Issue 4, 1996


Mutual Behavioral Adaptation of Partners in Dyads in Two SPecies of Prosimians


dynamics of mutual behavioural adaptation in the process of establishing social relationships in mouse lemurs (Microcebs murinus) and pygmy slow lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus) was studied. Observations were made over a 3-hour period beginning when a male and a female were first placed together during the non breeding season. As well, the behaviour of stable pairs that had been together for more than one year was observed. Behaviour was recorded using the one/zero method with 5-sec intervals. Two stages of the development of social relationships, each with different functional values, were identified. The first stage involved mutual social investigation, the second the stabilization of the social relationship. Differences in the dynamics of social contacts between species members were due to their different social structures. The process of social adaptation of behaviour in dyads is discussed and quantitative and qualitative characteristics of breeding pairs and non breeding pairs are compared. It is suggested that a convenie nt strategy for improving breeding is to replace one of the partners with an experienced animal.

Hand Preferences in New World Primates

Studies of

hand preference s in the platyrrhine species are reviewed. Hand preferences of the New World species have been recorded during feeding activities, visuospatial reaching, haptic discrimination, tool use and in a variety of routine tasks using the hands. Of the New World species tested so far, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchiis) and squirrel monkeys {Saimiri sciureus), appear to be the only species that do not display handedness in feeding activities: at the population level both species display a symmetrical distribution of hand preferences. It appears that only one New World primate species, the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), displays left handedness during feeding while the other species are right handed or have no handedness. Thus,tlie findings for hand use in feeding do not support the Postural Origins hypothesis of MacNeilage et al. (1987) as it predicts left handedness rather than right in the arboreal platyrrhine species. Overall, tlie reports of handedness for tasks requiring complex visuospatial or tactile processing in the New World primates concur with those reported for humans, who have left handedness in haptic discrimination and complex visuospatial tasks and right handedness for manipulative tasks. Squirrel monkeys are left handed when reaching for moving objects and capuchins display left handedness in haptic discrimination tasks, and right handedness during sponging tasks. There is strong evidence of an effect of posture on the strength of hand preferences, and some affects of age and gender on hand use have also been reported. However, these variables do not influence hand preferences consistently across species or across tasks conducted with the same species.