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This series is automatically populated with publications deposited by UCSF Library researchers in accordance with the University of California’s open access policies. For more information see Open Access Policy Deposits and the UC Publication Management System.

Cover page of Associations between self-reported obstetric complications and experience of care: a secondary analysis of survey data from Ghana, Kenya, and India.

Associations between self-reported obstetric complications and experience of care: a secondary analysis of survey data from Ghana, Kenya, and India.



Although several indicators have been proposed to measure women's experience of care in health facilities during the intrapartum period, it is unknown if these indicators perform differently in the context of obstetric emergencies. We examined the relationship between experience of care indicators from the Person-Centered Maternity Care (PCMC) scale and obstetric complications.


We used data from four cross-sectional surveys conducted in Kenya (rural: N = 873; urban: N = 531), Ghana (N = 531), and India (N = 2018) between August 2016 and October 2017. The pooled sample included 3953 women aged 15-49 years who gave birth within 9 weeks prior to the survey. Experience of care was measured using the PCMC scale. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the composite and 31 individual PCMC indicators with (1) obstetric complications; (2) severity of complications; and (3) delivery by cesarean section (c-section).


16% (632) of women in the pooled sample reported obstetric complications; and 4% (132) reported having given birth via c-Sect. (10.5% among those with complications). The average standardized PCMC scores (range 0-100) were 63.5 (SD = 14.1) for the full scale, 43.2 (SD = 20.6) for communication and autonomy, 67.8 (SD = 14.1) for supportive care, and 80.1 (SD = 18.2) for dignity and respect sub-scales. Women with complications had higher communication and autonomy scores (45.6 [SD = 20.2]) on average compared to those without complications (42.7 [SD = 20.6]) (p < 0.001), but lower supportive care scores, and about the same scores for dignity and respect and for the overall PCMC. 18 out of 31 experience of care indicators showed statistically significant differences by complications, but the magnitudes of the differences were generally small, and the direction of the associations were inconsistent. In general, women who delivered by c-section reported better experiences.


There is insufficient evidence based on our analysis to suggest that women with obstetric complications report consistently better or worse experiences of care than women without. Women with complications appear to experience better care on some indicators and worse care on others. More studies are needed to understand the relationship between obstetric complications and women's experience of care and to explore why women who deliver by c-section may report better experience of care.

Cover page of Navigation programs relevant for African American men with prostate cancer: a scoping review protocol

Navigation programs relevant for African American men with prostate cancer: a scoping review protocol



The excess incidence and mortality due to prostate cancer that impacts African American men constitutes the largest of all cancer disparities. Patient navigation is a patient-centered healthcare system intervention to eliminate barriers to timely, high-quality care across the cancer continuum and improves health outcomes among vulnerable patients. However, little is known regarding the extent to which navigation programs include cultural humility to address prostate cancer disparities among African American men. We present a scoping review protocol of an in-depth examination of navigation programs in prostate cancer care-including navigation activities/procedures, training, and management-with a special focus on cultural context and humility for African American men to achieve health equity.


We will conduct comprehensive searches of the literature in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL Complete, using keywords and index terms (Mesh and Emtree) within the three main themes: prostate cancer, patient navigation, and African American men. We will also conduct a search of the gray literature, hand-searching, and reviewing references of included papers and conference abstracts. In a two-phase approach, two authors will independently screen titles and abstracts, and full-text based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. All study designs will be included that present detailed data about the elements of navigation programs, including intervention content, navigator training, and/or management. Data will be extracted from included studies, and review findings will be synthesized and summarized.


A scoping review focused on cultural humility in patient navigation within the context of eliminating disparities in PCa care among African American men does not yet exist. This review will synthesize existing evidence of patient navigation programs for African American prostate cancer patients and the inclusion of cultural humility. Results will inform the development and implementation of future programs to meet the unique needs of vulnerable prostate cancer patients in safety net settings.

Systematic review registration

PROSPERO 2021 CRD42021221412.

Three-dimensional morphologic changes in the temporomandibular joint in asymptomatic patients who undergo orthodontic treatment: A systematic review



This systematic review aimed to summarize the morphologic changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients who underwent orthodontic treatment and were assessed by 3-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, cone beam computed tomography, and multidetector computed tomography).

Study design

The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to identify original articles from 2014 to 2021 containing keywords for morphologic changes in the TMJ, orthodontic treatment, and three-dimensional imaging methods. Prospective and retrospective studies, including observational, cross-sectional, randomized, and nonrandomized clinical trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies, were reviewed. The review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The risk of bias was assessed in studies selected for the full-text review.


The search strategy yielded 294 publications. After an initial screening and the application of exclusion criteria, 13 studies were selected for the final review.


Differences were found in condylar positioning, typically in an anterior position; condylar morphology, primarily with increased diameter or head height; and articular disk position within the anterior-posterior plane post-treatment. Changes in the glenoid fossa were not consistent between the studies. The overall risk of bias among studies was moderate. The influence of orthodontic treatment on morphologic changes in the TMJ remains unclear.

Cover page of Leadership development programs for healthcare professionals in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

Leadership development programs for healthcare professionals in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review.



Leadership development programs are integral to the future success of public health and healthcare organisations. Despite low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) bearing a greater burden of unmet medical needs, fewer professional development opportunities exist in these settings. This study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of available leadership development programs for healthcare professionals in LMICs.


This study conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-P systematic review and traditional meta-analyses guidelines. Articles were identified through five academic databases: Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC, and Business Source Complete. Eligibility criteria included original research published in peer-reviewed journals on non-clinical, leadership development programs offered to healthcare professionals in LMICs worldwide.


Forty-one peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria, of which physicians, nurses, and public health professionals were the most common types of providers to attend leadership development programs; no programs exclusively targeted surgeons. The greatest proportion of programs were short-term interventions (ranging from 1 day to 12 weeks). Communication, organizational structure and leadership, and personal development were identified as the three most common leadership themes in the review. Regionally, leadership programs were reported most commonly in Africa, specifically in Anglophone countries. Other regions worldwide, including Latin America and the Caribbean, were underrepresented in the review.


The findings from this review identify gaps in leadership development programs for certain groups of healthcare professionals from certain geographical regions, supporting the need for further provision of and participation in these opportunities in LMICs.

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Cardiopulmonary exercise testing to evaluate post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 ("Long COVID"): a systematic review and meta-analysis.


IMPORTANCE: Reduced exercise capacity is commonly reported among individuals with Long COVID (LC). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold-standard to measure exercise capacity to identify causes of exertional intolerance. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on exercise capacity including those with and without LC symptoms and to characterize physiologic patterns of limitations to elucidate possible mechanisms of LC. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, preprint severs, conference abstracts, and cited references in December 2021 and again in May 2022. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies of adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection at least three months prior that included CPET measured peak VO 2 . 3,523 studies were screened independently by two blinded reviewers; 72 (2.2%) were selected for full-text review and 36 (1.2%) met the inclusion criteria; we identified 3 additional studies from preprint servers. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data extraction was done by two independent reviewers according to PRISMA guidelines. Data were pooled with random-effects models. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: A priori primary outcomes were differences in peak VO 2 (in ml/kg/min) among those with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection and LC. RESULTS: We identified 39 studies that performed CPET on 2,209 individuals 3-18 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 944 individuals with LC symptoms and 246 SARS-CoV-2 uninfected controls. Most were case-series of individuals with LC or post-hospitalization cohorts. By meta-analysis of 9 studies including 404 infected individuals, peak VO 2 was 7.4 ml/kg/min (95%CI 3.7 to 11.0) lower among infected versus uninfected individuals. A high degree of heterogeneity was attributable to patient and control selection, and these studies mostly included previously hospitalized, persistently symptomatic individuals. Based on meta-analysis of 9 studies with 464 individuals with LC, peak VO 2 was 4.9 ml/kg/min (95%CI 3.4 to 6.4) lower compared to those without symptoms. Deconditioning was common, but dysfunctional breathing, chronotropic incompetence, and abnormal oxygen extraction were also described. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These studies suggest that exercise capacity is reduced after SARS-CoV-2 infection especially among those hospitalized for acute COVID-19 and individuals with LC. Mechanisms for exertional intolerance besides deconditioning may be multifactorial or related to underlying autonomic dysfunction.

Person-Centered Care Research in Ghana: a Scoping Review Protocol


Abstract Background: Person-centered care (PCC) is provision of care that is respectful of and responsive to in­dividual patient preferences, needs, and values, and ensures that patient values guide all clinical decisions. While there is a large body of evidence on the benefits of PCC in high-income countries, little research exists on PCC in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa at large. Most studies on PCC have focused on maternity care as part of the global movement of respectful maternity care. The few studies on patient experiences and health system responsiveness beyond maternal health also highlight gaps in patient experience and satisfaction, as well as discrimination in health facilities which leads to the most vulnerable having the poorest experiences. This scoping review aims to systematically map the extent of literature focused on PCC in Ghana by identifying patient expectations and preferences, barriers and facilitators, and interventions regarding PCC in Ghana.Methods: This protocol will be guided by the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework and recommendations by Levac, Colquhoun and O'Brien. A comprehensive search strategy will be used to search for published articles in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the African Journals Online (AJOL) from their inception to December 2021. Grey literature and reference lists of included studies will also be searched. Two independent reviewers will perform the literature search, eligibility assessments, and study selection. Any disagreements will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow diagram for the scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) will be used to outline the study selection process. Extracted data from the included articles will be synthesised and reported under key concepts derived from the outcomes of the scoping review.Discussion: The findings from this proposed scoping review on documented person-centeredness of care and patient expectations and preferences regarding PCC will be useful information for policymakers to consider in rolling out healthcare strategies that are driven by patient interest. Also, identification of various barriers and facilitators and evidence of effective PCC interventions will have implications on policy, practice, and further research in Ghana.Scoping review registration: OSF Registration DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/ZMDH9

Supporting the Spectrum Scholarship Program: perspectives from the Northern California and Nevada Medical Library Group


The immediate past presidents and current president of the Northern California and Nevada Medical Library Group write to raise awareness of the American Library Association Spectrum Scholarship Program, share their approach to supporting Scholars in their region, and encourage Medical Library Association (MLA) chapters and MLA at large to build stronger infrastructures to support Black, Indigenous, and People of Color librarians who are in school and recently graduated.

Characteristics of COVID-19 Breakthrough Infections among Vaccinated Individuals and Associated Risk Factors: A Systematic Review


We sought to assess breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated individuals by variant distribution and to identify the common risk associations. The PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Embase databases were searched from 2019 to 30 January 2022. The outcome of interest was breakthrough infections (BTIs) in individuals who had completed a primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Thirty-three papers were included in the review. BTIs were more common among variants of concern (VOC) of which Delta accounted for the largest number of BTIs (96%), followed by Alpha (0.94%). In addition, 90% of patients with BTIs recovered, 11.6% were hospitalized with mechanical ventilation, and 0.6% resulted in mortality. BTIs were more common in healthcare workers (HCWs) and immunodeficient individuals with a small percentage found in fully vaccinated healthy individuals. VOC mutations were the primary cause of BTIs. Continued mitigation approaches (e.g., wearing masks and social distancing) are warranted even in fully vaccinated individuals to prevent transmission. Further studies utilizing genomic surveillance and heterologous vaccine regimens to boost the immune response are needed to better understand and control BTIs.