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Open Access Publications from the University of California


The Journal of Citrus Pathology in an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online publication. The Journal of Citrus Pathology welcomes reports on research from all branches of pathology on all diseases of citrus and related fields. The journal accepts original contributions in basic and applied research on citrus diseases, pathogens and disease-associated agents, including graft-transmissible agents, viruses, viroids, bacteria, phytoplasmas and other wall-less bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes as well as any agents affecting citrus biology. This on-line IOCV publication by eScholarship ensures the distribution of critical information for citrus health and hosts occasional invited autobiographies and biographies of pioneer leaders of the field of citrus pathology.

Recently Accepted

First report of citrus virus A in citrus in South Africa

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of citrus indicator hosts, inoculated from psorosis-like diseased samples, revealed the presence of the first South African variant of citrus virus A (CiVA).  This virus was first identified in citrus in Italy and is the second member of the Coguvirus genus within the order Bunyavirales. The South African sequence variants of CiVA shares 95.55% (RNA1) and 94.82% (RNA2) nucleotide sequence identity with the Italian CiVA sequence. The discovery of CiVA in South African citrus orchards indicates the global distribution of CiVA and further investigations are required to determine the association of CiVA with psorosis-like disease symptoms.

Evaluating high-resolution computed tomography to study citrus tristeza virus-induced stem pitting

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most important viral pathogen of citrus. CTV-induced stem pitting negatively impacts grapefruit and sweet orange production. The mechanisms of stem pitting development in CTV-infected citrus remain unclear. This study evaluated the utility of high-resolution CT scanning as a tool to study stem pitting in live citrus material. CT scans were used to easily identify pits based on differences in tissue density. Stem pits were also mapped and modelled three-dimensionally along the length of the stem. Nano-CT scanning proved to be a potentially valuable, non-destructive method for stem pitting characterization in citrus.

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First comprehensive sanitary report of citrus-infecting viruses and viroids in Uruguay

Citrus is the highest-value fruit crop in terms of international trade. However, citrus species are susceptible to several diseases caused by different types of micro-organisms which directly cause a decrease in production leading to economic losses. Since the last half-century, citrus industry in Uruguay has a strong socio-economic impact and is constantly evolving to stay competitive, including strategies as the incorporation of new varieties and high yielding orchards. Nevertheless, despite the existence since 2010 of the National Citrus Sanitary and Certification Program, none or very little information about the sanitary status of these citrus plantings regarding viruses and viroids was available. The incidence of citrus tristeza virus (CTV), citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), satsuma dwarf virus (SDV), citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), hop stunt viroid (HSVd), citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd), citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) and citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd) was established, as well as CTV genotypes circulating in the country. Using molecular biology methods, 1175 samples from Valencia and Navel sweet oranges, Afourer and Clementine mandarins, and lemons, randomly collected from seven citrus-producing departments were analysed. Only 6% of the sampled citrus plants were pathogen-free, while 93% of them were CTV positive. SDV, CBLVd and CBCVd were not detected. Co-infections were very frequent finding plants with as many as four pathogens at the same time, being CTV present in all co-infected plants. This is the first comprehensive sanitary report of several citrus-infecting viruses and viroids in Uruguayan citrus groves, as well as the main CTV circulating genotypes in the country.

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Special Topics

Citrus Rootstocks: Their characters and reactions (an unpublished manuscript)

IOCV is pleased to present “Citrus Rootstocks: Their Characters and Reactions”, an unpublished manuscript by the late Prof. W.P. Bitters, University of California, Riverside. Based upon Prof. Bitters research and many other sources, this work was compiled between the late 1960’s and 1986 (additional information in preface). It represents a comprehensive (for that era) treatment of many facets of citrus rootstock physiology, horticulture, and pathology. Rootstocks serve as both conduits for citrus disease development and potential disease management tools, as well as tools in dealing with abiotic stresses. The history of the use of rootstocks for citrus has largely been determined by these factors, and they continue to greatly influence citrus rootstock research and usage. Although many advances in knowledge regarding citrus rootstocks have been made since 1986, the basic information presented remains important for all citriculturists. We hope that this Special Topic in IOCV’s Journal of Citrus Pathology makes this valuable resource more widely available.