The Journal of Citrus Pathology in an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online publication. The Journal of Citrus Pathology welcomes reports on research from all branches of pathology on all diseases of citrus and related fields. The journal accepts original contributions in basic and applied research on citrus diseases, pathogens and disease-associated agents, including graft-transmissible agents, viruses, viroids, bacteria, phytoplasmas and other wall-less bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes as well as any agents affecting citrus biology. This on-line IOCV publication by eScholarship ensures the distribution of critical information for citrus health and hosts occasional invited autobiographies and biographies of pioneer leaders of the field of citrus pathology.
Volume 9, 2022
Citrus Bent Leaf Viroid (CBLVd) and Citrus Dwarfing Viroid (CDVd), from genus Apscaviroid, are two of the widely distributed citrus viroids among the eight reported to date. They have been found to induce reduction in canopy volume and fruit production in citrus trees on trifoliate and trifoliate orange hybrids rootstocks. Moreover, citrus trees infected only with CBLVd or in combinations with Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd), Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd) and CDVd have been associated with a poor development of the root system. Samples of citrus trees showing viroid symptoms collected from citrus orchards in Tucumán, Salta, and Jujuy provinces (NW region in Argentina) were initially indexed on citron (Citrus medica) and then analyzed by s-PAGE. These samples were found to be infected with different viroid species, among them, CEVd and HSVd have been already identified. In order to determine the presence of other viroids, we performed a RT-PCR assay using specific primers for CBLVd, CDVd, CBCVd and CVd-V. Forty two samples including 15 lemons, 15 oranges, 8 grapefruits, 2 citrumelos and 2 Cleopatra mandarins were analyzed so far. On the basis of amplification of the appropriately sized DNA, CDVd was detected in thirty eight samples and CBLVd in all grapefruit samples. CBCVd and CVd-V were not found in any samples to date. Analysis of the sequence of amplicons revealed 96% and 97% identity with CBLVd GenBank reference sequences, and 96% to 98% with CDVd GenBank reference sequences. This is the first report of CBLVd and CDVd in citrus trees in Argentina.
The value of California citrus production in the 2020-21 marketing year was $3.63 billion. The total economic impact of the industry on California’s economy in 2020-21 was $7.6 billion. The California citrus industry added $1.9 billion to California’s state GDP in 2020. Estimated full time equivalent jobs in the California citrus industry in 2020-21 totaled 24,247. Estimated wages paid by the California citrus industry income in 2020-21 totaled $759 million. A 20% reduction in California citrus acreage would cause a loss of 8,213 jobs, $214 million in employee income, and reduce state GDP by $569 million.