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Atomically thin half-van der Waals metals enabled by confinement heteroepitaxy.

  • Author(s): Briggs, Natalie;
  • Bersch, Brian;
  • Wang, Yuanxi;
  • Jiang, Jue;
  • Koch, Roland J;
  • Nayir, Nadire;
  • Wang, Ke;
  • Kolmer, Marek;
  • Ko, Wonhee;
  • De La Fuente Duran, Ana;
  • Subramanian, Shruti;
  • Dong, Chengye;
  • Shallenberger, Jeffrey;
  • Fu, Mingming;
  • Zou, Qiang;
  • Chuang, Ya-Wen;
  • Gai, Zheng;
  • Li, An-Ping;
  • Bostwick, Aaron;
  • Jozwiak, Chris;
  • Chang, Cui-Zu;
  • Rotenberg, Eli;
  • Zhu, Jun;
  • van Duin, Adri CT;
  • Crespi, Vincent;
  • Robinson, Joshua A
  • et al.
Abstract

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) metals may be key ingredients in next-generation quantum and optoelectronic devices. However, 2D metals must be stabilized against environmental degradation and integrated into heterostructure devices at the wafer scale. The high-energy interface between silicon carbide and epitaxial graphene provides an intriguing framework for stabilizing a diverse range of 2D metals. Here we demonstrate large-area, environmentally stable, single-crystal 2D gallium, indium and tin that are stabilized at the interface of epitaxial graphene and silicon carbide. The 2D metals are covalently bonded to SiC below but present a non-bonded interface to the graphene overlayer; that is, they are 'half van der Waals' metals with strong internal gradients in bonding character. These non-centrosymmetric 2D metals offer compelling opportunities for superconducting devices, topological phenomena and advanced optoelectronic properties. For example, the reported 2D Ga is a superconductor that combines six strongly coupled Ga-derived electron pockets with a large nearly free-electron Fermi surface that closely approaches the Dirac points of the graphene overlayer.

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