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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Plasmon‐Tunable Tip Pyramids: Monopole Nanoantennas for Near‐Field Scanning Optical Microscopy


Squeezing optical fields into nanometer scale is the key step to perform spatially resolved near-field optics. In scattering-type near-field optical microscopy, this task is accomplished by nanoantennas that convert propagating radiation to local near-fields and vice versa. The usual nanoantenna is composed by an elongated metal structure whose longitudinal dimension is scaled to support dipole modes of localized surface plasmon resonances. However, monopole modes can also be explored if the elongated metal nanoparticle is electrically grounded on a flat metallic plateau that acts like a mirror providing the monopole's image that closes the dipole system. Here, a method for batch production of monopole nanoantennas for scattering-type near-field scanning optical microscopy is presented. The nanoantennas are composed of a micropyramidal body with a nanopyramidal end whose lateral dimension can be scaled to fine-tune localized surface plasmon resonance modes. The monopole character of the nanoantennas is revealed by electron energy loss spectroscopy, and their efficiency and reproducibility are tested in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy experiments performed on single-layer graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes.

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