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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Teaching Endotracheal Intubation Using a Cadaver Versus a Manikin-based Model: a Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Author(s): Pedigo, Ryan
  • Tolles, Juliana
  • Watcha, Daena
  • Kaji, Amy H.
  • Lewis, Roger J.
  • Stark, Elena
  • Jordan, Jaime
  • et al.

Introduction: The optimal method to train novice learners to perform endotracheal intubation (ETI)is unknown. The study objective was to compare two models: unembalmed cadaver vs simulationmanikin.

Methods: Fourth-year medical students, stratified by baseline ETI experience, were randomized 1:1to train on a cadaver or simulation manikin. Students were tested and video recorded on a separatecadaver; two reviewers, blinded to the intervention, assessed the videos. Primary outcome wastime to successful ETI, analyzed with a Cox proportional hazards model. Authors also comparedpercentage of glottic opening (POGO), number of ETI attempts, learner confidence, and satisfaction.

Results: Of 97 students randomized, 78 were included in the final analysis. Median time to ETI didnot differ significantly (hazard ratio [HR] 1.1; 95% CI [confidence interval], 0.7-1.8): cadaver group =34.5 seconds (interquartile ratio [IQR]: 23.3-55.8) vs manikin group = 35.5 seconds (IQR: 23.8-80.5),with no difference in first-pass success (odds ratio [OR] = 1; 95% CI, 0.1-7.5) or median POGO: 80%cadaver vs 90% manikin (95% CI, -14-34%). Satisfaction was higher for cadavers (median difference= 0.5; p = 0.002; 95% CI, 0-1) as was change in student confidence (median difference = 0.5; p= 0.03; 95% CI, 0-1). Students rating their confidence a 5 (“extremely confident”) demonstrateddecreased time to ETI (HR = 4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-17.2).

Conclusion: Manikin and cadaver training models for ETI produced similar time to ETI, POGO,and first-pass success. Cadaver training was associated with increased student satisfaction andconfidence; subjects with the highest confidence level demonstrated decreased time to ETI.

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