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Long-term Neurological Outcomes in Adults with Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage Admitted to ICU versus Floor

  • Author(s): Nishijima, Daniel K.
  • Melnikow, Joy
  • Tancredi, Daniel J.
  • Shahlaie, Kiarash
  • Utter, Garth H.
  • Galante, Joseph
  • Rudisill, Nancy
  • Holmes, James F.
  • et al.
Abstract

Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare long-term neurological outcomes in low-risk patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) admitted to the ICU (intensive care unit) versus patients admitted to the floor.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a Level 1 trauma center from October 1, 2008, to February 1, 2013. We defined low-risk patients as age less than 65 years, isolated head injury, normal admission mental status, and no shift or swelling on initial head CT (computed tomography). Clinical data were abstracted from a trauma registry and linked to a brain injury database. We compared the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) score at six months between patients admitted to the ICU and patients admitted to the floor. We did a risk-adjusted analysis of the influence of floor admission on a normal GOS-E.

Results: We identified 151 patients; 45 (30%) were admitted to the floor and 106 (70%) to the ICU. Twenty-three (51%; 95% CI [36-66%]) patients admitted to the floor and 55 (52%; 95% CI [42-62%]) patients admitted to the ICU had a normal GOS-E. On adjusted analysis; the odds ratio for floor admission was 0.77 (95% CI [0.36-1.64]) for a normal GOS-E at six months.

Conclusion: Long-term neurological outcomes in low-risk patients with tICH were not markedly different between patients admitted to the ICU and those admitted to the floor. However, we were unable to demonstrate non-inferiority on adjusted analysis. Future work aimed at a larger, prospective cohort may better evaluate the relative impacts of admission type on outcomes. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2):284–290.]

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