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Manipulating the Crystallization Kinetics by Additive Engineering toward High-Efficient Photovoltaic Performance

Abstract

Additive processing is proven to be an effective method to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells; however, its intrinsic role in directing the crystallization pathway and thus morphology formation remains unknown. In situ grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) is applied to study the function of a 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) additive in manipulating the crystallization behavior of perovskite thin films. It is seen that the DIO additive could induce multi-stage intermediate crystallization phases and increases the activation energy for nucleation and growth, which postpones the perovskite phase transformation time and broadens the transition zone. The elongated crystallization process affords improved perovskite thin film crystallinity and reduces defect density, which enables a longer carrier diffusion length. As a result, improved device efficiency, moisture, and thermal stability can be achieved. The current study provides a new prospective in understanding the additive function in perovskite thin film morphology control from fundamental parameters, indicating the importance of minor processing conditions in global property management toward high device performance.

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