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Open Access Publications from the University of California

An a priori evaluation of a principal component and artificial neural network based combustion model in diesel engine conditions


A principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) based chemistry tabulation approach is presented. ANNs are used to map the thermochemical state onto a low-dimensional manifold consisting of five control variables that have been identified using PCA. Three canonical configurations are considered to train the PCA-ANN model: a series of homogeneous reactors, a nonpremixed flamelet, and a two-dimensional lifted flame. The performance of the model in predicting the thermochemical manifold of a spatially-developing turbulent jet flame in diesel engine thermochemical conditions is a priori evaluated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. The PCA-ANN approach is compared with a conventional tabulation approach (tabulation using ad hoc defined control variables and linear interpolation). The PCA-ANN model provides higher accuracy and requires several orders of magnitude less memory. These observations indicate that the PCA-ANN model is superior for chemistry tabulation, especially for modelling complex chemistries that present multiple combustion modes as observed in diesel combustion. The performance of the PCA-ANN model is then compared to the optimal estimator, i.e. the conditional mean from the DNS. The results indicate that the PCA-ANN model gives high prediction accuracy, comparable to the optimal estimator, especially for major species and the thermophysical properties. Higher errors are observed for the minor species and reaction rate predictions when compared to the optimal estimator. It is shown that the prediction of minor species and reaction rates can be improved by using training data that exhibits a variation of parameters as observed in the turbulent flame. The output of the ANN is analysed to assess mass conservation. It is observed that the ANN incurs a mean absolute error of 0.05% in mass conservation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that this error can be reduced by modifying the cost function of the ANN to penalise for deviation from mass conservation.

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