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Elevated Tumor Lactate and Efflux in High-grade Prostate Cancer demonstrated by Hyperpolarized 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Prostate Tissue Slice Cultures.

  • Author(s): Sriram, Renuka
  • Van Criekinge, Mark
  • DeLos Santos, Justin
  • Ahamed, Fayyaz
  • Qin, Hecong
  • Nolley, Rosalie
  • Santos, Romelyn DeLos
  • Tabatabai, Z Laura
  • Bok, Robert A
  • Keshari, Kayvan R
  • Vigneron, Daniel B
  • Peehl, Donna M
  • Kurhanewicz, John
  • et al.
Abstract

Non-invasive assessment of the biological aggressiveness of prostate cancer (PCa) is needed for men with localized disease. Hyperpolarized (HP) 13C magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy is a powerful approach to image metabolism, specifically the conversion of HP [1-13C]pyruvate to [1-13C]lactate, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Significant increase in tumor lactate was measured in high-grade PCa relative to benign and low-grade cancer, suggesting that HP 13C MR could distinguish low-risk (Gleason score ≤3 + 4) from high-risk (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) PCa. To test this and the ability of HP 13C MR to detect these metabolic changes, we cultured prostate tissues in an MR-compatible bioreactor under continuous perfusion. 31P spectra demonstrated good viability and dynamic HP 13C-pyruvate MR demonstrated that high-grade PCa had significantly increased lactate efflux compared to low-grade PCa and benign prostate tissue. These metabolic differences are attributed to significantly increased LDHA expression and LDH activity, as well as significantly increased monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) expression in high- versus low- grade PCa. Moreover, lactate efflux, LDH activity, and MCT4 expression were not different between low-grade PCa and benign prostate tissues, indicating that these metabolic alterations are specific for high-grade disease. These distinctive metabolic alterations can be used to differentiate high-grade PCa from low-grade PCa and benign prostate tissues using clinically translatable HP [1-13C]pyruvate MR.

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