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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The transcriptome of adult female Anopheles darlingi salivary glands

  • Author(s): Calvo, E
  • Andersen, J
  • Francischetti, I M
  • deL Capurro, M
  • deBianchi, A G
  • James, A A
  • Ribeiro, JMC
  • Marinotti, O
  • et al.

Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi is an important malaria vector in South and Central America; however, little is known about molecular aspects of its biology. Genomic and proteomic analyses were performed on the salivary gland products of Anopheles darlingi. A total of 593 randomly selected, salivary gland-derived cDNAs were sequenced and assembled based on their similarities into 288 clusters. The putative translated proteins were classified into three categories: (S) secretory products, (H) housekeeping products and (U) products with unknown cell location and function. Ninety-three clusters encode putative secreted proteins and several of them, such as an anophelin, a thrombin inhibitor, apyrases and several new members of the D7 protein family, were identified as molecules involved in haematophagy. Sugar-feeding related enzymes (alpha-glucosidases and alpha-amylase) also were found among the secreted salivary products. Ninety-nine clusters encode housekeeping proteins associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis, signal transduction and other cellular functions. Ninety-seven clusters encode proteins with no similarity with known proteins. Comparison of the sequence divergence of the S and H categories of proteins of An. darlingi and An. gambiae revealed that the salivary proteins are less conserved than the housekeeping proteins, and therefore are changing at a faster evolutionary rate. Tabular and supplementary material containing the cDNA sequences and annotations are available at

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