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Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency degradation of K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method

  • Author(s): Ding, Z
  • Karkare, S
  • Feng, J
  • Filippetto, D
  • Johnson, M
  • Virostek, S
  • Sannibale, F
  • Nasiatka, J
  • Gaowei, M
  • Sinsheimer, J
  • Muller, E
  • Smedley, J
  • Padmore, H
  • et al.
Abstract

K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method have been found to have excellent quantum efficiency (QE) and outstanding near-atomic surface smoothness and have been employed in the VHF gun in the Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX), however, their robustness in terms of their lifetime at elevated photocathode temperature has not yet been investigated. In this paper, the relationship between the lifetime of the K-Cs-Sb photocathode and the photocathode temperature has been investigated. The origin of the significant QE degradation at photocathode temperatures over 70 °C has been identified as the loss of cesium atoms from the K-Cs-Sb photocathode, based on the in situ x-ray analysis on the photocathode film during the decay process. The findings from this work will not only further the understanding of the behavior of K-Cs-Sb photocathodes at elevated temperature and help develop more temperature-robust cathodes, but also will become an important guide to the design and operation of the future high-field rf guns employing the use of such photocathodes.

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