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Open Access Publications from the University of California

A systematic solution to quantify economic values of vehicle grid integration


Vehicle-Grid-Integration (VGI) supplies one of the potential benefit extensions for electric vehicles (EVs) to make use of their parking time, which enables the EVs to provide grid services while still meeting consumer driving needs. However, the costs, benefits and risks of VGI still remain unclear, which limits the development of the VGI to promote the interaction between the EV and grid. In this study, we propose an integrated framework to quantify and utilize the aggregate flexibility of the EVs to supply the grid services in electricity markets. The integrated solution includes five sub-modules that cover end-to-end functionalities from individual EV energy consumption estimation to final monetary values calculation of providing grid services. Both wholesale market and local level charging management are formulated in the optimization module. A predictive control algorithm is proposed to allocate power to individual vehicles in real time, considering uncertainties from dispatch signal and travel behavior. Simulation results from 10,000 EVs indicate that the proposed optimization methods can significantly reduce the system cost in both wholesale market and retail market. Local tariff optimization reduces the electricity cost by 24.4% compared to uncontrolled charging. Wholesale market optimization results show that $691 and $255 revenues can be captured by each EV in ERCOT and CAISO markets per year, although with a conservative assumption on battery throughput cost at 0.16$/kWh.

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