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The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2

  • Author(s): Scott, Kathleen M.
  • Sievert, Stefan M.
  • Abril, Fereniki N.
  • Ball, Lois A.
  • Barrett, Chantell J.
  • Blake, Rodrigo A.
  • Boller, Amanda J.
  • Chain, Patrick S.G.
  • Clark, Justine A.
  • Davis, Carisa R.
  • Detter, Chris
  • Do, Kimberly F.
  • Dobrinski, Kimberly P.
  • Faza, Brandon I.
  • Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.
  • Freyermuth, Sharyn K.
  • Harmer, Tara L.
  • Hauser, Loren J.
  • Hugler, Michael
  • Kerfeld, Cheryl A.
  • Klotz, Martin G.
  • Kong, William W.
  • Land, Miriam
  • Lapidus, Alla
  • Larimer, Frank W.
  • Longo, Dana L.
  • Lucas, Susan
  • Malfatti, Stephanie A.
  • Massey, Steven E.
  • Martin, Darlene D.
  • McCuddin, Zoe
  • Meyer, Folker
  • Moore, Jessica L.
  • Ocampo, Luis H.
  • Paul, John H.
  • Paulsen, Ian T.
  • Reep, Douglas K.
  • Ren, Qinghu
  • Ross, Rachel L.
  • Sato, Priscila Y.
  • Thomas, Phaedra
  • Tinkham, Lance E.
  • Zeruth, Gary T.
  • et al.
Abstract

Presented here is the complete genome sequence of Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, representative of ubiquitous chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This gammaproteobacterium has a single chromosome (2,427,734 bp), and its genome illustrates many of the adaptations that have enabled it to thrive at vents globally. It has 14 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein genes, including four that may assist in positioning it in the redoxcline. A relative abundance of CDSs encoding regulatory proteins likely control the expression of genes encoding carboxysomes, multiple dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate transporters, as well as a phosphonate operon, which provide this species with a variety of options for acquiring these substrates from the environment. T. crunogena XCL-2 is unusual among obligate sulfur oxidizing bacteria in relying on the Sox system for the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. A 38 kb prophage is present, and a high level of prophage induction was observed, which may play a role in keeping competing populations of close relatives in check. The genome has characteristics consistent with an obligately chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, including few transporters predicted to have organic allocrits, and Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle CDSs scattered throughout the genome.

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