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Nicotine Gateway Effects on Adolescent Substance Use

  • Author(s): Ren, Michelle
  • Lotfipour, Shahrdad
  • et al.
Abstract

Given the rise in teenage use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (“vaping”) in congruence with the increasing numbers of drug-related emergencies, it is critical to expand the knowledge of the physical and behavioral risks associated with developmental nicotine exposure. A further understanding of the molecular and neurochemical underpinnings of nicotine’s gateway effects allows emergency clinicians to advise patients and families and adjust treatment accordingly, which may minimize the use of tobacco, nicotine, and future substances. Currently, the growing use of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes among teenagers represents a major public health concern. Adolescent exposure to tobacco or nicotine can lead to subsequent abuse of nicotine and other substances, which is known as the gateway hypothesis. Adolescence is a developmentally sensitive time period when risk-taking behaviors, such as sensation seeking and drug experimentation, often begin. These hallmark behaviors of adolescence are largely due to maturational changes in the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of drugs of abuse, including tobacco and nicotine products, which activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Disruption of nAChR development with early nicotine use may influence the function and pharmacology of the receptor subunits and alter the release of reward-related neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, serotonin, and glutamate. In this review, we emphasize that the effects of nicotine are highly dependent on timing of exposure, with a dynamic interaction of nAChRs with dopaminergic, endocannabinoid, and opioidergic systems to enhance general drug reward and reinforcement. We analyzed available literature regarding adolescent substance use and nicotine’s impact on the developing brain and behavior using the electronic databases of PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published in English between January 1968 and November 2018. We present a large collection of clinical and preclinical evidence that adolescent nicotine exposure influences long-term molecular, biochemical, and functional changes in the brain that encourage subsequent drug abuse.

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