Comparative genome sequencing of drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene and cis-element evolution
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Comparative genome sequencing of drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene and cis-element evolution

  • Author(s): Richards, Stephen
  • Liu, Yue
  • Bettencourt, Brian R.
  • Hradecky, Pavel
  • Letovsky, Stan
  • Nielsen, Rasmus
  • Thornton, Kevin
  • Todd, Melissa J.
  • Chen, Rui
  • Meisel, Richard P.
  • Couronne, Olivier
  • Hua, Sujun
  • Smith, Mark A.
  • Bussemaker, Harmen J.
  • van Batenburg, Marinus F.
  • Howells, Sally L.
  • Scherer, Steven E.
  • Sodergren, Erica
  • Matthews, Beverly B.
  • Crosby, Madeline A.
  • Schroeder, Andrew J.
  • Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel
  • Rives, Catherine M.
  • Metzker, Michael L.
  • Muzny, Donna M.
  • Scott, Graham
  • Steffen, David
  • Wheeler, David A.
  • Worley, Kim C.
  • Havlak, Paul
  • Durbin, K. James
  • Egan, Amy
  • Gill, Rachel
  • Hume, Jennifer
  • Morgan, Margaret B.
  • Miner, George
  • Hamilton, Cerissa
  • Huang, Yanmei
  • Waldron, Lenee
  • Verduzco, Daniel
  • Blankenburg, Kerstin P.
  • Dubchak, Inna
  • Noor, Mohamed A.F.
  • Anderson, Wyatt
  • White, Kevin P.
  • Clark, Andrew G.
  • Schaeffer, Stephen W.
  • Gelbart, William
  • Weinstock, George M.
  • Gibbs, Richard A.
  • et al.
Abstract

The genome sequence of a second fruit fly, D. pseudoobscura, presents an opportunity for comparative analysis of a primary model organism D. melanogaster. The vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled leading to the identification of approximately 1300 syntenic blocks. A repetitive sequence is found in the D. pseudoobscura genome at many junctions between adjacent syntenic blocks. Analysis of this novel repetitive element family suggests that recombination between offset elements may have given rise to many paracentric inversions, thereby contributing to the shuffling of gene order in the D. pseudoobscura lineage. Based on sequence similarity and synteny, 10,516 putative orthologs have been identified as a core gene set conserved over 35 My since divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome wide average consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than control sequences between the species but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a picture of repeat mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high co-adaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence between these species of Drosophila.

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