Leading-order auxiliary-field theory of the Bose-Hubbard model
- Author(s): Dawson, JF
- Cooper, F
- Chien, CC
- Mihaila, B
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023607
We discuss the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard (BH) model in the leading-order auxiliary field (LOAF) theory. LOAF is a conserving nonperturbative approximation that treats on equal footing the normal and anomalous density condensates. The mean-field solutions in LOAF correspond to first-order and second-order phase transition solutions with two critical temperatures corresponding to a vanishing Bose-Einstein condensate Tc and a vanishing diatom condensate Tẫ†. The second-order phase transition solution predicts the correct order of the transition in continuum Bose gases. For either solution, the superfluid state is tied to the presence of the diatom condensate related to the anomalous density in the system. In ultracold Bose atomic gases confined on a three-dimensional lattice, the critical temperature Tc exhibits a quantum phase transition, where Tc goes to zero at a finite coupling. The BH phase diagram in LOAF features a line of first-order transitions ending in a critical point beyond which the transition is second order while approaching the quantum phase transition. We identify a region where a diatom condensate is expected for temperatures higher than Tc and less than T0, the critical temperature of the noninteracting system. The LOAF phase diagram for the BH model compares qualitatively well with existing experimental data and results of ab initio Monte Carlo simulations. © 2013 American Physical Society.