Advancements and Application of Microsecond Synchrotron X-ray Footprinting at the Advanced Light Source
- Author(s): Gupta, S;
- Celestre, R;
- Feng, J;
- Ralston, C
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1080/08940886.2016.1124684
The method of synchrotron X-ray protein footprinting (XF-MS) is used to determine protein conformational changes, folding, protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, providing information which is often difficult to obtain using X-ray crystallography and other common structural biology methods [1–3]. The technique uses comparative in situ labeling of solvent-accessible side chains by highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in buffered aqueous solution under different assay conditions. In regions where a protein is folded or binds a partner, these •OH susceptible sites are inaccessible to solvent, and therefore protected from labeling. The •OH are generated by the ionization of water using high-flux-density X-rays. High-flux density is a key factor for XF-MS labeling because obtaining an adequate steady-state concentration of hydroxyl radical within a short irradiation time is necessary to minimize radiation-induced secondary damage and also to overcome various scavenging reactions that reduce the yield of labeled side chains.