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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Relationships between hexapods and crustaceans based on mitochondrial genomics.


The ion current from different cathode materials was measured for 50 500 A of arc current. The ion current normalized by the arc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5% to 19%. The normalized ion current was generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The ion erosion rates were determined from values of ion current and ion charge states, which were previously measured in the same ion source. The absolute ion erosion rates ranged from 16 173 microgram/C ??

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