Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to Characterize the Solid/Liquid Interface: Probing the Electrochemical Double Layer
- Author(s): Favaro, M;
- Liu, Z;
- Crumlin, EJ
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1080/08940886.2017.1289806
Ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) has contributed greatly to a wide range of research fields, including environmental science , catalysis , and electrochemistry , to name a few. The use of this technique at synchrotron facilities primarily focused on probing the solid/gas interface; however, it quickly advanced to the probing of liquid/vapor interfaces [4, 5] and solid/liquid interfaces through an X-ray-transparent window [6–8]. Most recently, combining APXPS with “Tender” X-rays (~2.5 keV to 8 keV) on beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (which can generate photoelectrons with much longer inelastic mean free paths) has enabled us to probe the solid/liquid interface without needing a window . This innovation allows us to probe interfacial chemistries of electrochemically controlled solid/liquid interfaces undergoing charge transfer reactions . These advancements have transitioned APXPS from a traditional surface science tool to an essential interface science technique.