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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to Characterize the Solid/Liquid Interface: Probing the Electrochemical Double Layer

  • Author(s): Favaro, M;
  • Liu, Z;
  • Crumlin, EJ
  • et al.

Ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) has contributed greatly to a wide range of research fields, including environmental science [1], catalysis [2], and electrochemistry [3], to name a few. The use of this technique at synchrotron facilities primarily focused on probing the solid/gas interface; however, it quickly advanced to the probing of liquid/vapor interfaces [4, 5] and solid/liquid interfaces through an X-ray-transparent window [6–8]. Most recently, combining APXPS with “Tender” X-rays (~2.5 keV to 8 keV) on beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (which can generate photoelectrons with much longer inelastic mean free paths) has enabled us to probe the solid/liquid interface without needing a window [9]. This innovation allows us to probe interfacial chemistries of electrochemically controlled solid/liquid interfaces undergoing charge transfer reactions [9]. These advancements have transitioned APXPS from a traditional surface science tool to an essential interface science technique.

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