The Physics Department at UC San Diego is home to approximately 65 faculty members whose research interests include astrophysics, biophysics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy particle physics, and plasma physics. The graduate program is home to about 160 PhD students in training. In addition to accommodating about 400 physics majors, course enrollments total 16,000 students each academic year, mostly in introductory and general education courses.
Measurement of electroweak production of a W boson in association with two jets in proton-proton collisions at s=13Te.
A measurement is presented of electroweak (EW) production of a W boson in association with two jets in proton-proton collisions at s=13Te . The data sample was recorded by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb-1 . The measurement is performed for the ℓν jj final state (with ℓν indicating a lepton-neutrino pair, and j representing the quarks produced in the hard interaction) in a kinematic region defined by invariant mass mjj>120Ge and transverse momenta pTj>25Ge . The cross section of the process is measured in the electron and muon channels yielding σEW(Wjj)=6.23±0.12(stat)±0.61(syst)pb per channel, in agreement with leading-order standard model predictions. The additional hadronic activity of events in a signal-enriched region is studied, and the measurements are compared with predictions. The final state is also used to perform a search for anomalous trilinear gauge couplings. Limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings associated with dimension-six operators are given in the framework of an effective field theory. The corresponding 95% confidence level intervals are -2.3
Control of Bacillus subtilis Replication Initiation during Physiological Transitions and Perturbations.
Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli are evolutionarily divergent model organisms whose analysis has enabled elucidation of fundamental differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Despite their differences in cell cycle control at the molecular level, the two organisms follow the same phenomenological principle, known as the adder principle, for cell size homeostasis. We thus asked to what extent B. subtilis and E. coli share common physiological principles in coordinating growth and the cell cycle. We measured physiological parameters of B. subtilis under various steady-state growth conditions with and without translation inhibition at both the population and single-cell levels. These experiments revealed core physiological principles shared between B. subtilis and E. coli Specifically, both organisms maintain an invariant cell size per replication origin at initiation, under all steady-state conditions, and even during nutrient shifts at the single-cell level. Furthermore, the two organisms also inherit the same "hierarchy" of physiological parameters. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that the basic principles of coordination between growth and the cell cycle in bacteria may have been established early in evolutionary history.IMPORTANCE High-throughput, quantitative approaches have enabled the discovery of fundamental principles describing bacterial physiology. These principles provide a foundation for predicting the behavior of biological systems, a widely held aspiration. However, these approaches are often exclusively applied to the best-known model organism, E. coli In this report, we investigate to what extent quantitative principles discovered in Gram-negative E. coli are applicable to Gram-positive B. subtilis We found that these two extremely divergent bacterial species employ deeply similar strategies in order to coordinate growth, cell size, and the cell cycle. These similarities mean that the quantitative physiological principles described here can likely provide a beachhead for others who wish to understand additional, less-studied prokaryotes.
Neutrinos emitted from near the surface of the hot proto-neutron star produced by a supernova explosion may be subject to significant gravitational redshift at late times. Electron antineutrinos (ν̄e) decouple deeper in the gravitational potential well of the neutron star than do the electron neutrinos (νe), so that the ν̄e experience a larger redshift effect than do the νe. We show how this differential redshift can increase the electron fraction Ye in the neutrino-heated ejecta from the neutron star. Any r-process nucleosynthesis originating in the neutrino-heated ejecta would require a low Ye, implying that the differential redshift effect cannot be too large. In turn, this effect may allow nucleosynthesis to probe the nuclear equation of state parameters which set the neutron star radius and surface density scale height at times of order tph ≈ 10s to 25s after core bounce.