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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Electronic Green Journal

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Do generations differ when it comes to green values and products?

Purpose: This study investigates the environmental beliefs of three generations to discover whether their stated beliefs match their actions in regards to green purchases.

Design/methodology/approach: 1,215 participants across three generations (Millennials, Generation Xers, and Baby Boomers) answered survey questions regarding their environmental beliefs and were assigned a "Green" score. They also answered questions regarding the types and quantities of past green purchases. Analyses were performed to determine if there were statically significant differences among the generations.

Findings: Baby Boomers were the most environmentally friendly generation. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the types of items purchased by the three generations, and Baby Boomers only slightly outpaced the other two generations in the quantity of green items purchased.

Research limitations/implications:

Marketers can use this research to market environmentally friendly products differently to the three generations.


This research expands on existing work in the areas of generational cohorts and green products.

Keywords: generational cohorts, green products, GREEN Consumer Values Scale

Paper type: Research paper

Eco-labels: A tool for green marketing or just a blind mirror for consumers

Studies show that greening the business is not only helpful in getting the green products to the consumers, which may be better for their health and environment, but it also helps the business as a kind of strategy for enjoying a competitive advantage and strengthening brand image. Green marketing practices are now days gaining wide acceptance among various marketing practices. Green marketing is the set of marketing activities which start from the procurement of the product to the delivery of the product to the end user in a greener way. On the other hand, eco-labeling is one of the important tools for the green marketing as it helps to differentiate the green products from non-green products. But it has been seen that many times these eco-labels fail to attain their objectives. The objective of this paper is to establish a relationship of eco-labels with consumer knowledge, information communication, consumer trust and its impact on green purchase intention. Further, all these relationships have been verified with the help of structural equation modeling (SEM), performed by using SmartPLS 3.0. The study reveals that eco-labeling is a significant criterion for consumer trust and green purchase intention via consumer information and knowledge.

Learning from Greenpeace: Activist Habitus in a Local Struggle

This paper traces the onto-genesis of a specific environmental campaign in Indonesia. A highly effective struggle to save the local city forest was instigated by young activists in Bandung who had previously been involved with Greenpeace Indonesia. The data comes from interviews, a focus group and ethnographic fieldwork. The paper illustrates the point that when youth get involved in a highly structured environmental protest movement like Greenpeace, the skills, network resources and confidence they gain there can later be deployed to great advantage in a local conservation campaign. That phenomenon can be understood using the notion of radical habitus derived from the theoretical work of Pierre Bourdieu.


Keywords: youth, activism, radical habitus, Greenpeace



The silence of the Paris Climate Agreement of 2015 about compensation for harms inflicted by carbon emissions of the past cannot obliterate the obligations of the developed countries that caused these omissions to make reparations to affected developing countries. This article includes in its scope the grounds of these obligations and the forms that such compensation might take, and their relation to adaptation. By way of methodology, we employ both ethical analysis and the application of ethical findings to areas such as technology transfer and early-warning systems. We also argue that geo-engineering should not be included among the forms that compensation might adopt. Our aim is to foster among countries responsible for carbon emissions an enhanced awareness of imaginative ways in which the harms they have caused can be mitigated or ameliorated.


Review: Energy and Civilization: A History

Review:  Energy and Civilization: A History

Review: The Great Acceleration – An Environmental History of the Anthropocene since 1945

Despite my criticisms, I would recommend this book for anyone who needs a short introduction to the Great Acceleration, the escalation of human impacts on the “Earth system” since 1945.

Review: Creating a Transformational Community, The Fundamentals of Stewardship Activities

Review: Creating a Transformational Community, The Fundamentals of Stewardship Activities